Laparoscopy was introduced approximately 30 years back and was used in the diagnosis of tubal sterilization. But it has expanded to more sophisticated operations to nearly all the abdominal and pelvic surgeries and even malignancies. Despite rapidly improving technical equipment and surgical skill there are few complications. The overall complication rate ranges from 0.2% to 10.3%.Few complications that can arise due to the laparoscopic surgeries are:
Intestinal Injury: Majority of the complications occur during entry of instruments into the abdomen used to create pneumoperitoneum. The incidence of complication decreases with open entry. The injuries are mostly intraoperative injuries are mostly thermal. Most bowel injuries are not diagnosed during surgery. Delayed intervention may be life-threatening. If the diagnosis is delayed more than 72 hours mortality rate increases. When the bowel is entered via verses needle or trocar bowel content or gas may be observed.
Ureteral Injury: This is the most dread complication. Pelvic surgery is the most common cause due to increasing number of laparoscopic hysterectomies and retroperitoneal laparoscopic procedure that is performed. Chances of ureteric injuries are 2.6 to 35 times more than 0.2 to 6.0 in abdominal hysterectomy. These injuries are frequently undetected. The postoperative presentation is variable and nonspecific. The postoperative presentation is variable and nonspecific such as anti pelvic pain, nausea, vomiting etc.
Bladder Injury: The most common type of urinary injury is bladder perforation. Incidence is 0.2% to 8.3%. Mostly occur during hysterectomy operations, surgeries and endometriosis.
Abdominal Wall Vascular Injury: Injuries including interior epigastric vessels. So, proper hemostasis is required. Suturing can be done.
A hernia At The Site: It is believed that 1/3 of all injuries cause incision hernia incidence is 0.17 to 0.28%.
Gas Embolism: This is a rare but serious complication. Postoperative should pain due to irritation of diagphram.